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We are about breaking down traditional cultural and artistic hierarchies and categorizations to foster a view that appreciates cultural diversity and commonality. We are about flow and change, rather than stolidity and stasis'. Now it's up to the well-heeled board to donate and raise whatever it takes to let LACMA realize its full potential and create a civic symbol to rival Walt Disney Hall. Michael Webb is an architectural critic Dietro la maschera dell'arte Yinka Shonibare.

Lo scultore americano, di origine norvegese, Hendrik Christian Andersen fa costruire nel quartiere Flaminio una abitazione- studio da lui stessa disegnata nello stile neo-rinascimentale allora in voga.

Settantotto anni dopo I'artista anglo-nigeriano Yinka Shonibare, classe , viene invitato a realizzare una personale nella casa- atelier di Andersen, diventata nel frattempo un museo che oltre ad accogliere la produzione dello scultore ospita regolarmente mostre di artisti contemporanei. A questo punto entra in scena un altro personaggio: La lettura di alcune di quelle appassionate lettere ha ispirato Shonibare a usare la dimora di Andersen non come un contenitore, pittoresco nelle forme ma irrilevante nei contenuti, per la sua arte: Andersen pagina a fianco, in basso , realizzate per il museo romano, reinterpretano la biografia dello scultore americano - norvegese The installations Three Graces, above, and Henry James and Hendrik C.

Andersen , facing page, created for the Rome museum, reinterpret the biography of the Norwegian-born American sculptor titolo della mostra che dichiara il debito di ispirazione di Shonibare nei confronti del luogo espositivo e, alio stesso tempo, allude alia presenza di tre vere e proprie muse nella vita di Andersen: Helene, la madre, Olivia, la cognata vedova e Lucia, la modella che verra adottata dalla madre dell'artista diventando cosi sua sorella.

Tre presenze femminili concrete e quotidiane cui fa da contraltare la relazione a distanza con Henry James. Un'intensa e promiscua ragnatela di rapporti in cui il maschile e il femminile si fondono in un'armonica androginia intellettuale e spirituale che ignora tradizioni e norme sociali.

Questa pluralita o, meglio, indeterminazione sessuale deve aver affascinato Yinka Shonibare, da sempre impegnato nello smascheramento di quelle sovrastrutture, di quei cliche, di cui ci serviamo per comporre I'identita dell'altro e, successivamente, per riconoscerlo. Una volonta che nasce dalla sua esperienza personale di rampollo dell'aristocrazia nigeriana, nato a Londra e cresciuto nella ricca e internazionale Lagos degli anni Settanta, ma che una volta tomato nella capitale britannica ha dovuto fare i conti con angusti schemi culturali: Shonibare ha accontentato questa voglia di esotismo, che nasce dalla necessita di soddisfare un rassicurante stereotipo, usando come materiale espressivo i tessuti batik; considerate simbolo di 'africanita', in realta queste stoffe hanno origine in Olanda, dove venivano fabbricate secondo una tecnica indonesiana, mentre oggi sono prodotte in Gran Bretagna.

Una metafora di ibridazione culturale ed estetica, che Shonibare ha utilizzato nelle due installazioni con manichini acefali altro leit-motiv dell'artista realizzate appositamente per il Museo Andersen. Helene, Olivia e Lucia assurgono al ruolo di Tre Grazie vestite con abiti dell'epoca. Nell'altro gruppo scultoreo, Hendrik C.

Andersen e Henry James si fronteggiano in pose eleganti e languide. La distanza estetica che divide i due uomini, caratteristica deN'omoerotismo platonico, e simbolicamente accorciata daN'atteggiamento delle loro mani, che quasi si sfiorano come quelle di Dio e di Adamo nella michelangiolesca Cappella Sistina.

L'allusione, in questo gesto, al ruolo di mentore del vecchio scrittore nei confronti del giovane scultore e piuttosto chiara: Coloratissimi ed eccentrici, dichiarano sfacciatamente una matrice etnica, eppure si armonizzano con le fogge primo Novecento degli abiti dei manichini. Iniziare dalle apparenze, dagli abiti, dall'involucro estetico per confutare i luoghi comuni e affermare I'autonomia del Se, e una scelta scontata per Shonibare, che fa affermazioni da esteta convinto: E se quindi il pubblico ha bisogno di ricondurre ad un'identita determinata un vissuto complesso, quindi sfuggente, come il suo, egli, aristocratico di nascita e anticonformista per formazione, non puo che assumere la maschera del dandy: Cosi in questa mostra romana si offre al pubblico negli elegantissimi panni del suo alter-ego Dorian Gray, in undici patinate immagini fotografiche che ripercorrono la vicenda dell'affascinante personaggio wildiano.

Per mischiare ulteriormente le carte in tavola, Shonibare non ha illustrato il testo di Oscar Wilde, ma ha rielaborato le scene di una riduzione cinematografica americana degli anni Quaranta, mettendo in atto un'ulteriore stratificazione di segni e significati. II degenerate etnico deve disobbedire, ma la sua disobbedienza non deve mai essere degenerata, deve restare costantemente dignitosa" spiega Shonibare, operando uno scarto rispetto al dandismo decadente che e invece essenzialmente e intimamente amorale.

Oscar Wilde diceva infatti che I'estetica e superiore all'etica, Shonibare sembra piuttosto affermare - e non e una differenza da poco- un'estetica dell'etica. Seventy-eight years later, the Anglo-Nigerian artist Yinka Shonibare, born in , was offered a solo show in Andersen's house, which in the meantime had been converted into a museum to hold the sculptor's works and regular exhibitions by contemporary artists.

At this point another character enters the scene. He is Henry James, the great American writer, who kept up a close friendship with the young Nordic artist through an intense correspondence that lasted 1 6 years and was only recently discovered after the museum's opening. Having read some of these impassioned letters, Shonibare felt inspired to use Andersen's home not as a container for his art, picturesque in form yet irrelevant in content, but as a sort of stage.

It would be a fairly crowded one, with characters and plots onto which different elements could be grafted to present unprecedented performances. The title of this exhibition, Be-Muse, declares the inspiration Shonibare found in the place where it is held. But it also alludes to the three real muses of Andersen's own life: Helene, his mother; Olivia, his widowed sister-in- law; and Lucia, the model who was adopted by the artist's mother and thus became his sister.

These three tangible daily female presences are offset by Andersen's remote rapport with Henry James. In an intensely promiscuous web of relationships, male and female are merged into a harmonious intellectual and spiritual androgyny that ignores traditions and social norms. This plurality, or sexual indeterminacy, must have intrigued Yinka Shonibare, who has always striven to unmask the superstructures and cliches that we rely on to compose and recognize different identities.

This intention stems from his personal background as a scion of the Nigerian aristocracy. Born in London and brought up in the rich and international Lagos of the s, when Shonibare returned to England, he had to reckon with a narrow cultural compass.

The art public expected him - as an authentic cosmopolitan personality - to express his presumed ethnic difference. Deciding to humour this expectation of the exotic and its inherent need to fit reassuring stereotypes, Shonibare started using batik fabrics. Shonibare brings this metaphor of cultural and aesthetic hybridisation into effect in the two installations with headless manikins another of his leitmotifs done specially for the Andersen Museum.

Helene, Olivia and Lucia assume the roles of Three Graces, dressed in period costume. In the other sculptural group, Hendrik C. Andersen and Henry James face each other in languidly elegant poses. The aesthetic distance between the two men, characteristic of a platonic homoeroticism, is symbolically shortened by the position of their hands, which, like those of God and Adam in Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel, almost touch.

The allusion of this gesture to the role of mentor played by the old writer vis-a-vis the young sculptor is clear enough. But what leaves the spectator bewildered and perplexed - bemused, in fact - are the batik fabrics with which the elegant costumes of both installations are made. Brightly coloured and eccentric, they brazenly suggest an ethnic source, yet they match the early 20th-century style of the manikins' clothes.

Shonibare takes for granted the idea of starting from appearances, from clothes and aesthetic outer wrappings, in order to refute platitudes and assert the autonomy of self. His statements are those of a confirmed aesthete: If the public wants to pin a given identity on a complex and hence ambiguous experience like his, he, an aristocrat by birth and unconventional by upbringing, is bound to wear the mask of the most sophisticated, epicene and cosmopolitan dandy.

Thus in this Rome show he presents himself to the public in the exquisitely elegant shoes of his alter ego, Dorian Gray, in 1 1 glossy photographic images that retrace the story of Oscar Wilde's enchanting character. To shuffle the cards still further, Shonibare has not illustrated Wilde's text but has redeveloped scenes from an American s film version.

In this way he sets off a further stratification of signs and significations. The ethnic degenerate must disobey, but their disobedience must never be degenerated, it must remain constantly dignified', explains Shonibare, departing for a moment from the decadent dandyism that is essentially and inwardly amoral.

Indeed, Oscar Wilde once said that aesthetics is superior to ethics. Shonibare seems rather to affirm - and it is no small difference - an aesthetic of ethics. Lo spazio con cui SOM si e dovuto confrontare a Chicago non era dei piu semplici: Nonostante le difficili condizioni di partenza, Childs e Taylor sono riusciti a creare una scenografia accattivante e divertente che, grazie a un sistema minimale di pannelli in color arancione abbinati a muri d'acciaio, coesiste piacevolmente con i progetti in mostra.

II visitatore e invitato cosi a entrare in uno spazio dinamico, dove appare I'immagine di un lungo treno che si snoda in un paesaggio astratto. Mentre negli ultimi decenni i treni ad alta velocita hanno spianato la strada ad una rinascita della ferrovia, la stazione si e trasformata in un edificio polifunzionale.

Tale aspetto e considerato da Martha Thome, curatrice della mostra, come I'elemento piu innovativo nella progettazione di questa tipologia. Segni premonitori di tale concetto possono essere letti nella costruzione di alberghi adiacenti all'edificio ferroviario e collegati ad esso da un percorso interno; come a Londra il Grosvenor Hotel, accanto alia Victoria Station , o il Charing Cross Hotel Polifunzionalita portata ad estreme conseguenze dall'architetto giapponese Hiroshi Hara che, nella sua Kyoto Station Building ha realizzato uno dei piu grandi insediamenti commerciali di Kyoto.

Dal progetto ottocentesco con motivazioni unicamente tecnologiche le stazioni, quindi, hanno assunto sempre nuove connotazioni: Accanto a questo intervento per riportare un architettura storica alia sua originaria identita, la mostra racconta di altri esempi che fanno della monumentalita il loro punto di forza: La mostra dimostra come I'alto standard che il sistema ferroviario offre dal punto di vista della "qualita della vita" non ha paragoni con nessun altro mezzo di trasporto.

Nella prefazione al catalogo, Nicholas Grimshaw, progettista del Waterloo International Terminal di Londra, anticipa un possibile futuro: Bothe, Richter and Tehrani's interchange for Frankfurt Airport's ICE railway station Nel progetto di Richard Rogers e SMWM per il terminal Transbay di San Francisco, la copertura da elemento strutturale diventa motivo formale, celebrando cosi la tradizione delle grandi stazioni ottocentesche In the Richard Rogers and SMWM scheme for the Transbay Terminal in San Francisco, the roof is transformed from a structural element into a formal motif, celebrating the tradition of great 19th-century railway stations carrozze letto per i viaggi piu lunghi.

Chiara Toffanin, architetto, vive a Chicago The splendours of speed Like Claude Monet with his haunting scenes from the Gare Saint-Lazare in Paris, artists have long been attracted to railway stations and trains. Cinema and literature, too, have used them as settings for human drama. The space that confronted SOM in Chicago was not an easy one, with its narrow horseshoe plan and very high ceilings. Despite these daunting conditions, Childs and Taylor have succeeded in creating an exciting and entertaining stage set.

Based on a minimal system of orange panels and steel walls, it pleasantly accommodates the projects on view. Visitors are ushered into a dynamic interior and greeted by the image of a long train winding its way through an abstract landscape. In recent decades high-speed trains have paved the way, so to speak, for a rebirth of railways. Stations, meanwhile, have been transformed into multipurpose buildings - an aspect treated by Martha Thome, the exhibition's curator, as the most striking change that has occurred in designs for this type of architecture.

Early signs of a similarly comprehensive concept can be seen in hotels that were built next to railway stations and connected to them internally, such as the Grosvenor Hotel, adjacent to Victoria Station , or the Charing Cross Hotel This all-embracing approach was carried to its extreme by the Japanese architect Hiroshi Hara, whose Kyoto Station building also incorporated one of the city's largest shopping centres.

Since the 19th-century designs with their purely technological motivations, railway stations have changed enormously. Today they serve vast numbers of passengers, whose reasons for travelling or lingering in stations have changed out of recognition since the quaint old days of steam.

In addition to tracing a peculiar historic architecture to its original identity, the exhibition features other examples where monumentality is the chief attraction, such as Atocha Station in Madrid by Rafael Moneo, Hung Horn Station in Hong Kong by Norman Foster, Lausanne Station by Bernard Tschumi and, especially, Santiago Calatrava's project for Liege-Guillemins Station in Belgium, with its iron and glass vaults supported by steel ribs in a celebratory apotheosis of the classic railway station.

This exhibition witnesses the high 'quality of life' offered by a rail system still unmatched by other means of transport. In the foreword to the catalogue, Nicholas Grimshaw, architect of the Waterloo International Terminal, 'can envisage a fast, efficient train system throughout Europe with seating as good as any vehicle, with audio-visual and computer links, with bookable meeting rooms, high-quality food, exercise facilities, and sleeping cars for the longer journeys.

Entertainment is also a possibility with on-board casinos, cinemas, and even roving musicians and conjurors'. Chiara Toffanin is an architect living in Chicago Austria: E in rapporto agli standard di altri paesi vicini, per i giovani architetti austriaci le possibility di veder realizzati i propri progetti sono relativamente elevate; eppure le condizioni non sono ideali nemmeno qui, riuscire a farsi un nome in questo piccolo paese non significa necessariamente essere notati altrove.

La serie di mostre "Emerging Architecture", inaugurata nell'autunno del , rappresenta dunque uno sforzo meritevole, sia da parte dell'Architekturzentrum sia del loro curatore, lo storico dell'architettura Otto Kapfinger. L'idea di fondo e quella di presentare ogni anno il lavoro di dieci studi alio scopo di promuovere le generazioni piu giovani e attirare nuovi incarichi.

Ciascuna mostra viene successivamente fatta circolare attraverso diversi spazi espositivi europei ed e accompagnata da un catalogo pubblicato da Springer in inglese e tedesco. La prima parte della mostra ha gia ottenuto un primo risultato: Inoltre, e stata poi creata una joint-venture, che attualmente sta portando avanti questa iniziativa.

II valore della partecipazione a simili concorsi traspare anche dai lavori presentati in questa seconda parte dell'esposizione. Alcuni tra i piu interessanti progetti in mostra sono stati infatti realizzati secondo analoghi principi, come nel caso del giovane studio di Vorarlberg - Cukrowicz e Nachbaur - che, adattando geometrie e soluzioni semplici a problemi complessi, e riuscito a creare un collegamento tra mondi contrastanti come una stazione dei vigili del fuoco e un centra d'arte.

L'architettura del gruppo, rettilinea e lucida pur senza essere noiosa e priva di humour, ne ha fatto uno dei sodalizi di maggiore successo. Oltre alia Stazione dei vigili del fuoco e al Centra d'arte gia menzionati, Cukrowicz e Nachbaur hanno progettato anche uno spazio per eventi a Wolfurt, alcune case, blocchi residenziali e una pregevole nuova sede per la Croce Rossa di Vorarlberg; altri edifici, tra cui due scuole, sono attualmente in fase di pianificazione.

Caratteristica di questa giovane generazione, nativa della regione del Vorarlberg, e I'abile manipolazione dei materiali naturali. Altro punto forte della mostra e il lavoro di Fasch e Fuchs, un team capace non solo di convertire strutture esistenti in ambienti luminosi e diafani, ma anche di trasformare un grande deposito per automezzi pubblici in uno spazio affascinante, un terminal elegante e del tutto privo dell'abituale, desolante aspetto anonimo. Secondo Otto Kapfinger, I'approccio dei dieci team selezionati e accomunato dal medesimo "rifiuto verso gli edifici imponenti come massa scultorea".

Non e facile tuttavia comprendere con precisione cosa egli intenda, se si considera il lavoro di Wolfgang Tshapeller: E non si pub nemmeno dire che, oltre all'opulenza formale, il suo commissariato di Murau, costruito sul ripido pendio che costeggia il fiume, rappresenti anche un convincente nesso tra architettura e natura. Di fronte a molte delle opere esposte, il visitatore si scoprira inoltre a cercare invano i segni annunciati di "una definizione dello spazio incorporea quanto uno scheletro o una membrana".

Gehrard Mitterberger propone un progetto incredibilmente dispendioso, che non sarebbe inappropriato definire "scultoreo e imponente" come la sua rivitalizzazione dello Schloss Bruck di Lienz o il piano per un parcheggio a Matrei. La nozione di Kapfinger risulta invece piu agevole da seguire in progetti come la sala da te di Marterermoosmann, un'esile struttura in acciaio pensata per un sito di difficile accessibility. Qui, il vecchio ma sempre attuale tema del prefabbricato, delle tecniche Domus Febbraio February 1 7 Come fare coLazione in piedi e Lavorare distesi.

Cio nonostante, continua costruttive semplici e dei materiali durevoli e ripreso e tradotto in un linguaggio non certo rivoluzionario ma senz'altro aggiornato. Lo stesso assunto e raccolto anche da Gerner e Gerner, mentre Holodeck. Una piccola distrazione dai tanti edifici per scuole e abitazioni che una mostra di questo tipo tende ad accumulare e offerto da Maria Flockner e Hermann Schnoll: La disposizione dei lavori in mostra e anche concepita secondo principi democratici, ma non sempre risulta funzionale alia comprensione d'insieme.

Le bacheche per la prima edizione, utilizzate anche come casse da imballaggio delle opere esposte, includono ognuna uno schermo video usato per presentare uno dei lavori dei vari team; oltre a questo, vi sono pannelli di dimensioni standard, che illustrano i progetti in dettaglio. Non e prevista alcuna variazione su questo schema: I disegni e i bozzetti, in ogni caso, sono sempre piu scarsi. In tal senso, le proposte di Hans Gongoly, che crea e conserva i suoi progetti nella propria memoria con I'aiuto di note scritte, prova che anche un metodo cosi ambiguo puo portare buoni frutti.

Una posizione del tutto speciale neN'ambito della mostra e occupata da Erich Gutmorgeth. Nato nel , Gutmorgeth e il piu anziano dei partecipanti e vanta numerosi progetti a suo nome, come rampliamento dell'ospedale regionale di Feldkirch e due filiali della catena di supermercati M-Preis, imprenditori sensibili alia buona 18 Domus Febbraio February a essere sconosciuto al grande pubblico: Dopo tutto, esse si propongono di fungere da agenzia di promozione per i giovani architetti.

La scelta soggettiva di un curatore e certo sempre destinata ad alimentare polemiche. Eppure la sola scarsa notorieta non dovrebbe far parte dei criteri di selezione, piu di qualche studio con alcune pubblicazioni alle spalle non sarebbe risultato fuori luogo nella descrizione di una vivace scena architettonica: Sembra giusto chiedersi infine se ogni gruppo interessante ce la fara a emergere: Lilli Hollein, critico di architettura e design Austria's next generation Austria is a country whose architecture is recognized to be of high quality, and whose continuity in this respect is guaranteed by relatively high numbers of architectural students.

By the standards of the somewhat hopeless situation in neighbouring European countries, the chances of young Austrian architects seeing their designs actually built are relatively good. However, conditions are not exactly overwhelming, and making a name for oneself in one corner of this little country does not necessarily mean that one will be noticed elsewhere.

In this sense, the exhibition series Emerging Architecture, which was inaugurated in the autumn of , is a remarkable and useful endeavour on the part of the Architekturzentrum and its curator, the architectural historian Otto Kapfinger.

The idea is to present each year the work of ten architectural offices belonging to the younger Austrian scene, with the aim of promoting publicity for the new generation and increasing their commissions.

Each exhibition subsequently tours around Europe, accompanied by a catalogue published in English and German by Springer.

Part one of Emerging Architects has resulted in apartments, a school and a garden complex worked out by the teams on the basis of a town-planning concept and model typologies; a joint venture has been formed to develop the project further. The value of participation in competitions is apparent among the exhibitors at Emerging Architects 2. Some of the most interesting projects in this exhibition have been realized in this way, for example those of the young team from Vorarlberg, Cukrowicz and Nachbaur.

Using simple geometries and solutions for complicated problems, they manage to unite contrasting worlds: Their architecture is rectilinear and lucid without becoming humourless and boring. This has made Cukrowicz and Nachbaur one of the most successful young teams in Austria in recent years.

In addition to the station and centre already mentioned, they have designed an event hall in Wolfurt and houses, apartment blocks and a remarkable headquarters for the Red Cross in Vorarlberg, while two schools and other projects are in the planning stages. One characteristic of the younger generation of Austrian architects, especially those from Vorarlberg, is a skilful use of traditional materials, which, in that region, means wood above all.

Another highlight of the exhibition is the work of Fasch and Fuchs, a team that not only knows how to transform existing structures into bright, dal transparent spaces but can also turn a bus garage into an attractive place, an elegant terminal with none of the usual diesel desolation.

Curator Otto Kapfinger sees the ten teams united by a common 'rejection of massive sculptural building'. In view of the work of Wolfgang Tschapeller, in particular, it is difficult to see what he means by this. The implementation of Tschapeller's study for large, existing reinforced-concrete skeletons would lead to a patchwork shroud, used floor by floor by different owners to clad the defenceless structure.

Nor, for all its formal opulence, does his District Commissioner's Office in Murau, built into the slope on a steep riverbank, come across as a convincing link between architecture and nature. In many of the contributions, one will also look in vain for 'an incorporeal, membrane and skeleton-like definition of space'.

Gerhard Mitterberger goes to incredible expense in his projects, for which 'sculptural and massive' would not be inappropriate descriptions. Take, for example, the revitalization of Schloss Bruck in Lienz or his design for a car park in Matrei. In projects like the teahouse by Marterermoosmann, a slender steel construction for a site inaccessible to construction traffic, Kapfinger's notion is easier to follow. Here the old but still fresh themes of prefabrication, simple building techniques and durable materials are taken up once more and translated into a language that is not revolutionary, but nevertheless up to date.

This is a theme also taken up by Gerner and Gerner; Holodeck. All three move on a contemporary scale between the poles represented by 'exciting' and 'solid'. It remains to be seen whether every interesting team is going to 'emerge' - some will inevitably remain in the second rank. Relief from all the residential and school buildings that an exhibition of this kind tends to amass is provided by Maria Flockner and Hermann Schnoll, who created one of the most exotic projects in landlocked Austria: The installation is democratic, but the arrangement is not always helpful.

The presentation boxes developed for the first exhibition, which also serve as transportation containers, include screens showing videos about one of each team's projects; there are also uniform information boards explaining the works. There is no provision for breaking out of this formula - no models, no attractive graphics, no individualization of the contributions. Drawings and sketches are, in any case, few and far between. The contributions of Hans Gangoly, who creates his designs exclusively in his head with the help of written notes, prove that this dubious method can bear well-shaped fruit.

Erich Gutmorgeth, in particular, occupies a special position in this exhibition. Born in 1 , he is the oldest of the participants and has some major projects to his name, including the enlargement of the regional hospital in Feldkirch and two branches of the architecture- conscious M-Preis supermarket chain.

He is still largely unknown, an unjust situation that, hopefully, will be remedied by this series of exhibitions. After all, they do in a way set out to act as a PR agency for young architects. The subjective choice of any curator is bound to give rise to discussion, but lack of publicity should not be among the selection criteria. A few offices with more publications behind them would not have been out of place in the description of a lively architectural scene, nor would a few more progressive works.

And if it is any comfort, those who missed out this year will have another chance next year: Lilli Hollein is a design and architecture critic Per crea re Due funzioni singolari si uniscono nel progetto redatto da Cukrowicz e Nachbaur: Cea e aneda gli ufficl. Architecture and Design in Stuttgart, Barcelona, Brno 9. Annlee You proposes Dal vera al simbolo, Independence and Liberation Movements in Africa, P.

Un novello gabinetto di un Dottor Galigari del , mosso da forme espressionistiche che lasciano intravvedere I'originale struttura lignea del contenitore: Non e un semplice negozio, dove si puo viaggiare tra tutte le collezioni Miyake, ma soprattutto una sorta di laboratorio per coinvolgere il cliente nel processo produttivo dell'abito. O, per usare le parole di Issey Miyake, nel "making things": Gehry makes magic for Miyake At the Making Things show, Issey Miyake unrolled a strip of knitted cloth out of which dresses, shirts, stockings and trousers could be cut, playing off the fabric's patterns, like magic, in order to make 'an entire garment out of a single thread'.

Frank Gehry provided the architectural context for the Japanese fashion designer's conjuring trick by 'unrolling', at the new Manhattan showroom, a glittering waterfall of metal strips. Their forms, rippling around the space and folding over themselves, are conspicuous from the outside, too. Through these lively expressionist forms may be glimpsed the original wooden frame of a cast-iron construction, protected as an historic monument, that is typical of the architecture of this district.

Located in Tribeca, this is not just a store where customers can roam through the Miyake collections: Gehry realized the design with Gordon Kipping Domus Febbraio February 23 II grafico che voile essere architetto Italo Lupi, architetto di formazione accademica, e conosciuto soprattutto per la raffinata arte grafica, contaminata da rapide escursioni in discipline parallele.

Ne fa fede il progetto del Centra per Nnformazione e I'Orientamento dell'Universita di Trento che Lupi ha recentemente realizzato all'interno di un ex garage. Insieme a Giuso Delia Giusta, Pio Nainer e Lazzaro Raboni, Lupi ha affrontato in primo luogo il problema dell'accesso, trasformando un'ordinaria scala in uno spazio di transizione scenografico; architettura Negli anni Ottanta i ragazzi, che elabo- ravano passi di breakdance indossan- do scarpe in gomma Adidas, anticipa- rono uno stile che la moda avrebbe re- cepito anni dopo.

Da quel momento due culture diverse, sport e moda, si sono unite, creando cosi una nuova estetica. Ne fa fede la collaborazione tra lo stilista Yohji Yamamoto e Adidas che ha portato alia creazione di una raffinata serie di scarpe in pelle rica- mata. La linea Adidas per Yohji Yamamoto sara distribuita in tutto il mondo a partire da marzo degli interni e grafica partecipano in modo paritario alia risoluzione formale. La scelta dei materiali e la ricerca illuminotecnica hanno dovuto supplire alia poca luce naturale presente nel seminterrato: Sotto le finestrelle verso I'estemo, piani inclinati bianchi diffondono la luce all'interno; cosl come i tavoloni per la consultazione e i tavoli singoli, entrambi abbinati alle sedie 31 07 di Jacobsen per Fritz Hansen , ridistribuiscono I'illuminazione artificiale fornita dalle lampade Diablo di Castiglioni per Flos.

The graphic designer turns his hand to architecture Italo Lupi is an architect with an academic background who is known for his elegant approach to graphic design, sometimes combined with rapid excursions into parallel disciplines.

Witness the Centre for Information and Orientation at Trento University, recently created by Lupi from a former garage. With Giuso della Giusta, Pio Nainer and Lazzaro Raboni, Lupi dealt first with the problem of access, transforming an ordinary staircase into a scenic transit well.

Interior design and graphics are deployed on an equal footing to achieve the desired form. Making up for the lack of natural light in the basement location, the floors are in sunny yellow linoleum while the walls have the warm tones of wood.

Sloping white surfaces beneath the external windows project light inward, while consultation boards, combined with Jacobsen 's 31 07 chairs for Fritz Hansen , redistribute the artificial lighting supplied by Castiglioni's Diablo lamps for Flos.

In the s the kids who invented the steps for break-dancing wore Adidas rubber trainers, heralding a casual style that was only later taken up by fashion. Since then the cultures of sport and fashion have come together to create a new aesthetic. Witness the collaboration between fashion designer Yohji Yamamoto and Adidas, which has led to the creation of a stylish range of embroidered leather shoes.

The Adidas line for Yohji Yamamoto will be distributed worldwide beginning in March 24 Domus Febbraio February Un'altra stazione per Roma La vittoria di Paolo Desideri studio ABDR nel concorso di progettazione della nuova stazione Tiburtina di Roma si inserisce nel dibattito internazionale sulla tipologia ferroviaria che, non piu monofunzionale, riproduce ormai le molteplicita presenti nel tessuto urbano.

Desideri supera le intenzioni originali e, per ricucire i quartieri Nomentano e Pietralata separati dal sedime ferroviario, recupera un modello storico: II progetto, inoltre, riprende la tradizione dei grandi strutturisti romani degli anni Cinquanta e Sessanta- Nervi, Morandi e Musumeci - nel disegno strutturale di un grande parallelepipedo in cristallo le dimensioni sono notevoli: Questa scatola e appesa a una struttura reticolare esterna, che sorregge sia le pareti perimetrali che la copertura; il piano di calpestio e fornito da un impalcato esistente.

La struttura presenta una maglia piramidale ed e portata, a sud e a nord, da due file di colonne circolari del diametro di 2 metri. All'interno, il sistema strutturale permette di appendere una serie di solette intermedie che contengono otto volumi traslucidi destinati afunzioni specialistiche depositi, uffici, sale Vip, Internet e conferenza, ristorante e caffe. Rivestiti in vetroresina, galleggiano nello spazio e, grazie alle luci inserite nelle pannellature, diventano nelle ore notturne scatole di irraggiamento luminoso.

No longer mono- functional, buildings of this type now reflect the many different aspects of today's urban fabric. Surpassing the original intentions of his brief - to sew back together the Nomentano and Pietralata quarters, divided by the railway yard - Desideri has revived the historic 'inhabited' bridge idea. The project also takes up the tradition set by the famous Roman structural engineers of the 1 s and '60s - Nervi, Morandi and Musumeci - in its structural design of a large glass parallelepiped, with no internal pillars, on the impressive scale of 50 x x 9.

This box is hung from an exterior structure that supports both the outer walls and the roof. An existing frame provides the floor spaces, and the pyramidal structure is borne, north and south, by two rows of round columns with diameters of two metres.

Inside, the structural system enables the attachment of a series of intermediate floor slabs, which contain eight translucent volumes for use as storage, offices, VIP, Internet and conference rooms, a restaurant and a cafe. Clad in glass brick, they seem to float in space; at night the lights housed in the panelling transform them into lamp-like boxes.

Pud un divano imbottito, un arredo tradizionalmente statico, andare contro le leggi della gravita? Questa e la domanda che si sono posti Shin e Tomoko Azumi nel disegnare per Hitch Mylius la collezione hm

Dunque, Lucienne e maestra nella decorazione, Robin e anche il padre della sedia piu venduta al mondo: Percorsi cosi diversi hanno un comune punto di partenza.

Tutto nasce all'interno di una mitica accademia per chi ama e studia il design, il Royal College of Art di Londra. Mitica perche luogo di insegnamento autentico, dove si coltivano da sempre le nuove generazioni di designer inglesi alle quali trasmettere gli insegnamenti dei grandi maestri, da Christopher Dresser a Jasper Morrison e Konstantin Grcic.

Robin e Lucienne Day frequentano I'accademia nel momento in cui c'e un forte orientamento verso le discipline piu artistiche, siamo negli anni Trenta quando due pittori, Rothenstein e Jowett, ne assumono il rettorato. Accade che Robin Day, entrato al Royal College of Art per specializzarsi in interior e industrial design, in realta non trovi corsi con questo orientamento.

Comincera un periodo di studio e ricerca in luoghi come la biblioteca del Victoria and Albert Museum e il Royal Institute of British Architects: Lucienne invece aderira immediatamente all'area di decorazione tessile. La reputazione di Lucienne Day si rafforza con la premiazione, alia Triennale di Milano del , dei suoi tessuti di arredamento Lucienne Day made her reputation when her art-influenced textile work won a prize at the Milan Triennale A questo punto si potrebbe idealmente sfogliare il libra e soffermarsi alternativamente prima su un servizio di porcellana Rosenthal decorato da Lucienne e poi sulla consolle di Robin, che nel 1 e valso il primo premio al concorso Low Cost Furniture Competition indetto dal MOMA: II libra propone una scansione temporale per presentare con un certo ordine e rigore il susseguirsi dei progetti dei coniugi Day: Oltre I'istintiva ammirazione per le belle immagini e interessante scrutare nel percorso che genera i tanti progetti.

Robin e Lucienne riescono a offrire un servizio di consulenzatotale, in certi casi di vera e propria immagine coordinata, dimostrando quanto possa essere ricco e stimolante il rapporto che si instaura con le aziende che, per continuity e naturale vocazione, permette di aprire dei veri e propri capitoli di ricerca e progetto. II valore del rapporto tra Robin Day e la Hille non e solo nella vendutissima Polypropylene Chair o nella geniale Axis Chair, ma anche nella simbiosi che tra loro si instaura e che determina la definizione di uno stile.

Robin Day per la Hille allestira lo showroom al 41 di Albermarle Street di Londra, sara il responsabile del progetto grafico dei cataloghi, disegnera personalmente le cartoline per gli auguri di Natale. Con la John Lewis Partnership il rapporto e altrettanto intenso, al punto da indicare il grafico Hans Schleger per ridisegnare il marchio della societa, e coinvolgera sia Robin che Lucienne. Un altro aspetto interessante del lavoro dei coniugi Day e il luogo dove esso viene espletato: Gia nel flat di Markham Square Robin Day arreda e definisce i piccoli ambienti con mobili di sua realizzazione, interpretandolo come momento di sperimentazione.

Questo atteggiamento sara mantenuto e amplificato nella casa piu grande di Cheyne Walk. Come in un laboratorio di idee, la casa e servita a verificare le loro intuizioni progettuali e testare accostamenti cromatici, composizioni formali e rapporti spaziali. Le pareti sono state dipinte alternativamente di diversi colori e tappezzate con i parati di Lucienne, i mobili disegnati da Robin e disposti secondo le diverse esigenze. II progetto non si esaurisce nella definizione sostanziale di un disegno esecutivo, nella prototipazione o nell'eventuale prima produzione, il progetto deve essere verificato nell'ambiente nel quale sara, o potrebbe essere, calato.

Molti progetti di allestimenti dei coniugi Day nasceranno ambientati nella loro casa. In questo atteggiamento progettuale si puo intuire il loro essere pionieristici, la maniacale attenzione per il dettaglio che prosegue nel tentativo di accompagnare i progetti con una indicazione di stile: Inoltre contribuiscono a individuare e distinguere il ruolo di interior designer da quello di architetto esaltandone il rapporto di interazione.

Molto riuscito I'allestimento di Robin Day dello showroom di Hille progettato da Peter Mora, o la realizzazione degli arredi per I'aeroporto di Gatwick su richiesta degli architetti Yorke, Rosenberg e Mardall: Questi, e altri illustrati nel libro, si possono definire progetti e processi decorativi che riempiono, senza stordire, I'architettura sulla quale intervengono. II delicato equilibrio e reso possibile dal rispetto con cui i coniugi Day, addomesticatori di spazi, manipolano gli ambienti coscienti del valore del precario rispetto aN'immanente: Massimiliano Di Bartolomeo, architetto Modernity the English way Robin Day does not merit discussion merely because he created the best- selling chair in the world, or Lucienne Conradi simply because she was his wife.

Robin and Lucienne Day were pioneers of contemporary design, and a host of people have followed the trail that they have blazed. It is not easy to review a book narrating such busy lives. The Days apparently worked quite separately, so they did not always overlap in terms of design or formal approach.

Unlike other design- world duos who worked together, notably Ray and Charles Eames or Le Corbusier and Charlotte Perriand, this husband-and-wife team were wedded to their work but their own identities remained distinct. True, Lucienne Day was a masterful decorator and Robin Day conceived the world's most popular chair.

But there is more to the story than that. Their widely differing paths shared the same point of departure, a mythical academy for those who love and study design: Famous for its effective and original teaching, the school has always attracted new generations of designers, from Christopher Dresser to Jasper Morrison and Konstantin Grcic. Robin and Lucienne Day attended the academy in the s, when it had a more artistic perspective under the influence of then rectors Rothenstein and Jowett.

Robin Day, who went to the Royal College of Art Robin Day seppe usare efficacemente il padiglione Homes and Gardens al Festival of Britain del come vetrina per il suo design Robin Day was able to use the Homes and Gardens Pavilion at the Festival of Britain to showcase his furniture designs to train as an interior and industrial designer, could not find any courses there in this discipline.

This double education - both inside and outside the RCA- surely affected his later designs. Lucienne Day, meanwhile, applied to the textile decorations area. Leafing through the book, we can examine a service of Rosenthal porcelain decorated by Lucienne, then gaze at Robin's console, which won first prize in the MoMA Low Cost Furniture Competition. There was also a fertile relationship with Hille, for whom Robin designed chairs and tables.

The volume scans the couple's history, presenting the Days' designs in a fairly orderly and rigorous fashion. One is struck by their capacity to continually satisfy diverse clients without losing the dignity of their designs. In addition to appealing to our instinctive admiration of beautiful images, this volume provides an interesting investigation of the origins of many projects. The Days were able to offer far-ranging advice to their clients, at times providing a total corporate image, demonstrating rich and stimulating relationships with firms whose longevity and openness to design made possible long-term research and development.

The value of the relationship between Robin Day and Hille does not rest only on their star product, the Polypropylene Chair, or the clever Axis Chair. They established a symbiosis that enabled the definition of a distinct style.

Robin Day designed Hille's London showroom at 41 Albermarle Street; he was in charge of the graphic design of the catalogues and personally created the corporate Christmas cards. Day's relationship with John Lewis Partnership was equally fertile; when he selected graphic designer Hans Schleger to revamp the company trademark, both of the Days participated. Another engrossing feature of the Days' work is the site where they performed it. In their Markham Square flat Robin Day decorated and defined the small rooms with his own furniture.

This experimentation was extended when they moved to their larger Cheyne Walk house. As if their home were an idea workshop, they used the space to test design ideas, including colour juxtapositions, formal compositions and spatial relationships.

The walls were painted with different colours at different times and were papered with creations by Lucienne; Robin's chairs were arranged to suit various needs. In other words, the couple's approach to design went beyond the substantial definition of a working drawing, prototype or production model. First they examined everything in the type of environment where it would be used, using their home as the testing ground.

The Days were pioneers in this attitude toward design, with its obsessive attention to detail and attention to style. Their work embodied an ongoing exchange between the contemporary and the avant-garde.

Furthermore, they were able to identify and define the roles of interior designer and architect, exalting their interactions. Robin Day's fittings for the Hille showroom designed by Peter Mora are stunning, as are his furnishings for Gatwick Airport he was called in by the architects Yorke, Rosenberg and Mardall. Lucienne Day created the Dabolo wallpaper as a commission for the Festival of Britain. These designs, as well as the others depicted in this volume, filled the buildings they inhabited without overwhelming.

This delicate balance was made possible by the respectful way the Days tamed the spaces and shaped their environments, cognizant of the value of the precarious as well as the immanent.

Secondo le teorie del neoplasticismo, questa totalita relazionale e un dato di fatto che esiste comunque - anche in progetti che non hanno cercato di tenerne conto - perche fa parte del modo in cui I'uomo percepisce il suo ambiente.

Cio che varia di caso in caso sono la qualita e la complessita dell'interazione tra I'uomo e lo spazio architettonico. Esse dipendono dalla qualita dei progetti stessi, dalla loro capacita di realizzare stimoli e di costituire punti di riferimento.

Nei Paesi Bassi, I'eredita storica dell'architettura moderna e tra le piu ricche e articolate di tutta I'Europa. Vi e sempre stata una consistente produzione di lavori teorici, sviluppati sotto forma di riviste, manifesti, libri e mostre. Questo fluttuare di idee e pensieri ha avuto una parte importante nella nascita di singolari connubi tra pragmatismo e sperimentazione. Parte integrante di questi connubi e I'alto contenuto di comunicazione visiva e sensoriale che si riscontra in molti progetti - non solo durante gli anni del movimento De Stijl, quando I'architettura si era addirittura fatta interprete e portavoce di una corrente di avanguardia artistica.

Chi legge il libro curato da Hans Ibelings si rende conto che negli ultimi quindici anni latradizione olandese di mettere in questione un repertorio di idee consolidate per cercare risultati nuovi, innovativi, diversi si e non solo conservata, ma consistentemente evoluta e rafforzata. La portata del fenomeno supera di gran lunga la stretta cerchia dei nomi e progetti conosciuti in tutto il mondo, come quelli di Koolhaas, Coenen, van Berkel o MVRDV.

Le opere che Ibelings presenta sono piu di , gli studi di architettura piii di Con trecento pagine, il libro rimane comunque maneggevole. Ibelings punta sulla densita e il ritmo accelerato di brevi presentazioni un progetto per ogni pagina e riesce in questo modo a cogliere anche le condizioni di simultaneity e trasversalita che caratterizzano sia il rapporto dei progetti tra di loro sia le circostanze esterne determinate da nuove tecnologie, nuovi sviluppi urbanistici e mutate regole economiche su scala globale.

E organizzato in base ad una gerarchia di livelli tematici che i lettori possono scendere, salire e sovrapporre I'uno sull'altro. II primo livello riguarda i capitoli principali che strutturano la presentazione dei progetti, passando dall'integrazione della natura dentro i paesaggi artificiali deN'uomo ad opere di edilizia sociale e progetti 4 Domus Febbraio February La battaglia dello studio MVRDV contra la gravita e il convincimento che la natura sia necessariamente legata alia terra e sostenuta con successo in questo edificio residenziale MVRDV's struggle against gravity and the idea that nature is necessarily earthbound is manifested in this apartment building realizzati grazie al supporto di finanziamenti pubblici pergiungere, infine, all'architettura "dei Paesi Bassi sulla carta", con ipotesi progettuali che ancora attendono la loro attuazione.

Altri capitoli sono dedicati al rapporto fra la tradizionale serieta calvinista degli olandesi e la scoperta di un nuovo humour e quindi anche di nuove forme di eloquenza nell'architettura , oppure al fenomeno di una vera e propria strategia di comunicazione da parte degli stessi architetti che negli anni Novanta hanno realizzato un numero cosi cospicuo di pubblicazioni come mai prima nella storia olandese.

Uno dei capitoli piu interessanti e intitolato 'confrontations' e presenta progetti dall'accentuato carattere interdisciplinare che sono stati applauditi dalla critica e accolti male dal pubblico.

Di ciascuno di questi capitoli fa parte un breve testo introduttivo. II secondo livello di 'navigazione' e costituito da tutta una serie di termini "in codice" - tra cui vuoto, anarchia, management, peep show, onda, corridoio, rifugio, oceano- che Ibelings sceglie per caratterizzare ogni singolo progetto con una parola chiave. Tutte queste parole - piu di 1 30 - formano una sorta di frontespizio allineato su una doppia pagina dove sembra bastasse cliccare su uno dei termini per arrivare direttamente al terzo livello che comprende i progetti, corredati ognuno di un commento di poche righe.

Una sezione a parte e costituita da un apparato critico con una selezione di testi di vari autori, tra cui i critici Hans van Dijk, Ole Bouman, Janny Rodermond e gli architetti Adriaan Geuze, Ben van Berkel e Caroline Bos. Un fenomeno che colpisce nella recente architettura olandese e che emerge chiaramente anche dal libro e il modo in cui molti architetti colgono cio che si potrebbe chiamare la sfida della normalita: Significa piuttosto che I'inclinazione del postmoderno e del decostruttivismo di cercare ovunque dei significati nascosti e stata superata.

Spesso accade, invece, che i significati derivino direttamente dall'aspetto dell'architettura e soprattutto da quello che si prova e si sente utilizzandola. That is, every facet, association, derivation and manifestation of the environment should be subject to investigation.

According to the theory of neoplasticism, this all- embracing relationship is a given in every architectural plan, even in designs that do not consciously acknowledge it, for this is how human beings perceive the environment.

What does vary from case to case is the quality and the interaction between individuals and architectural space. These factors depend on the calibre of the designs and their capacity to stimulate and constitute milestones. The Netherlands' historic legacy of modern architecture is one of the richest and most complex in Europe. The nation always has produced a sizeable amount of theory in the form of journals, manifestos, books and exhibitions, and this blossoming of ideas has fostered singular examples of the marriage of pragmatism and experiment.

An integral part of this union is the elevated visual and sensorial quality of many Dutch designs, and not just during the reign of De Stijl, when architecture actually interpreted and represented an avant-garde artistic movement. Those who read this book, edited by Hans Ibelings, will realize that in the last 1 5 years the Dutch tradition of questioning a set of established ideas to come up with innovative results has not waned. In reality, it has evolved and been strengthened.

The author presents more than works by over 60 firms, and although the book has pages, it is still manageable. Ibelings offers a dense, fast-paced series of short presentations one scheme per page , capturing the character of the designs and their relationship to external circumstances, including the effects of new technologies, planning advances and changing global economies.

It is arranged according to a hierarchy of subject levels that the reader may climb, descend or overlap. The first level contains the principal chapters into which the exposition of the designs is organized, including the blending of nature with artificial landscapes, public housing and other government-subsidised buildings and blueprints for a new Dutch architecture, including unbuilt projects.

Other chapters, each with a brief introduction, are devoted to how traditional Dutch Calvinism relates to fresh, eloquent architectural forms as well as the communications strategy of Dutch architects of the s, who published such a conspicuous number of works that their output surpassed anything in Dutch history.

One of the most interesting chapters, entitled 'Confrontations', presents multidisciplinary designs that got rave reviews from the critics but were damned by the public. The second surfing level is represented by several code words including void, anarchy, management, peep show, wave, corridor, refuge and ocean selected by Ibelings to categorize the designs. Each of these terms - there are approximately 1 30 - form a kind of double title page: Another striking aspect of recent Dutch architecture that is addressed clearly in this book is the way many architects have taken up what might be called the challenge of normality.

Notes Ibelings, 'The fact that they seek architecture without any symbolic or metaphorical allusions does not signify that there no longer is any absolute meaning. Rather, it means that postmodernism and deconstructivism's tendency to seek hidden connotations everywhere has been surpassed. Instead, frequently the meanings are derived directly from the appearance of the buildings and, above all, from what one feels and experiences using them'.

John Wilson Electa, Milano, pp. Volutamente poco spazio e lasciato alle conversazioni teorizzanti, un saggio di Colin St. John Wilson all'inizio e seguito da un parimenti meritevole saggio dei tre autori N. Postiglione, mentre in finale una piccola antologia di testi critici di autori vari, testi gia editi, completa ed assolve onorevolmente a questo compito.

Rimangono cosi piu di trecento pagine dedicate alle opere di quest'autore, quasi tutte presenti, e che vengono riportate fedelmente in senso cronologico: E' ovvio percio che nell'ampiezza del panorama ad alcuni edifici sia concesso il dovuto tributo nelle relative schede descrittive, mentre ad altri siano dedicati pochi e a volte, almeno apparentemente, frettolosi commenti.

Appare cioe che si, L'interno della Pasticceria Filips di Stoccolma. Le case dei morti, i cimiteri, le case dei vivi, le residenze operaie: Pochi furono realizzati, ma le stesse abitazioni concepite con T. Stubelius nei 1 a Karlshall realizzate solo in parte, e semplificate molto rispetto al progetto , dichiarano ancora una volta la concezione di un organismo che e imprescindibile dal paesaggio che va a trasformare, da una visione della vita intesa in tutta la sua dignita per ogni ceto o condizione sociale, da un'idea costruttiva semplice ma non banale, da un linguaggio tradizionale ma non pedissequo.

Nelle residenze singole per la borghesia sempre progettate con T. Stubelius , ancora il tema della realizzazione dell'architettura, in seno ad un paesaggio che si trasfigura in un unico tema, un' unica inscindibile realizzazione. L'unitarieta di queste opere una per una vince nell'opera di Lewerentz suH'unitarieta della produzione. Poiche aN'intemo di ogni singola opera i ripensamenti notturni, I'autocritica feroce, I'intransigenza penalizzante nei confronti dei committenti hafavorito la produzione di singole ma ossessivamente controllate opere, parimenti ogni singolo progetto e stato affrontato ogni volta da capo, daN'intemo dei suoi problemi concreti, riesaminando ogni volta le questioni fin dalle fondamenta e risolvendole unicamente con la matita; ne consegue una maniera del progetto che formalmente, ma non concettualmente, sembra a volte prendere direzioni diverse.

Dal linguaggio vernacolare del movimento romantico nazionale al linguaggio classico - attraversato da una vena austera di classicismo nord europeista - via via fino alle soglie del linguaggio brutalista anche estremo, per alcuni lati. Nella chiesa di S. Marco, come descritto nell'introduzione, I'insieme di alcune scelte progettuali provoca una disposizione frammentata di elementi planimetrici tale da indurre I'idea di un edificio- rovina, derivato da una piu perfetta forma precedente: Non c'e possibilita di equivoco quindi sull'origine dei progetti di Lewerentz; essi si fortificano daN'interno delle proprie necessita per rivelarsi nei mondo attraverso gli occhi di un suo meravigliato osservatore: Una produzione, quella di questo autore, che ben si allinea percio al suo modo di osservare il mondo, ritratto nelle silenziose quanto eloquenti fotografie del suo viaggio in Italia, regalateci come dono prezioso all'inizio del testo.

Sono le immagini catturate da un occhio che seleziona ed estrae dalla realta frammenti che assumono valore in quanto tali, parti di architetture che sono ora brani di materiale costruttivo valido per la propria carica evocativa: Elementi che nell'opera di questo maestro trovarono la strada per essere, dopo la loro percezione, rielaborati e restituiti in opere di architettura.

Cecilia Bolognesi, architetto Lewerentz, buildings in a landscape This is a catalogue that would have been much appreciated by Lewerentz himself. In fact, the book's general approach echoes typical traits of Lewerentz's personality: The writers chose not to leave much space for theoretical conversations; instead, Colin St. John Wilson's introduction is followed by an equally excellent essay by the three authors N.

At the end comes a short anthology of previously published critical pieces by various writers, which nicely rounds out the other essays. Thus there are over pages devoted to nearly all the works of this architect. They are presented in chronological order, whether built or unbuilt; not all the drawings are perfectly reproduced. Obviously, since the selection is so broad, more attention is paid to certain projects; some schemes receive only apparently hasty comments.

But the democratic listing of all Lewerentz's works is praiseworthy, for it brings out features that other authoritative monographs, like the beautiful Swedish volume edited by Janne Ahlin, published in , have objectively mystified. True, the architect's designs of places of worship - like churches and cemeteries - flourished, totalling over 20 projected and built works.

This category also includes the design of refined, carefully studied crematoriums, partially an effect of the introduction of cremation in Sweden in the early s.

Yet it is manifest that this architect expressed himself at least as extensively in working- and middle-class housing as in factories, furnishings and so forth. The houses of the dead the cemeteries and those of the living the workers' dwellings exhibit the same delicate purpose and expression. For example, at the cemetery in Malmo the landscaping was as respectful as possible of the site's topography.

These attributes were repeated in the constructional choices of the diverse schemes and the innovative functional solutions of the entire complex's organization. In addition, the language has a simplicity that revamps its classical origins.

These characteristics are also found in the designs for working-class homes. Not many were erected, but the dwellings conceived with Stubelius in 1 91 1 in Karlshall - although the project was only partially realized and the homes were greatly simplified from the initial scheme - once again assert the concept of an organism that is inseparable from the setting it transforms.

This testifies to a view of life with dignity for all, despite social class; the constructional concept is simple but not trite, while the language is traditional yet not slavish.

The middle-class, single- family houses created with Stubelius also represent architecture in a setting transfigured into a single theme, one inseparable creation.

In Lewerentz's work the unified nature of these projects, taken one by one, is stronger than the unified nature of his production. Within each work the architect's nightly revisions, stern search for shortcomings and hampering intransigence toward clients favoured the generation of individual yet obsessively controlled plans. Likewise, every scheme was started over from scratch to address its concrete problems; the questions were studied from the ground up and resolved solely through the act of drawing.

Consequently, there is, at times, a tendency in his designs to go formally, but not conceptually, in different directions, from the vernacular language of the national romantic movement to a classical language tinged with an austere vein of Nordic classicism and to the thresholds of an often extreme brutalism.

As the introduction explains, in the church of Saint Mark's the total design solutions cause a fragmentary layout, leading one to believe that it is a ruined building derived from a more perfect preceding form. This expedient goes far beyond the basic notions of brutalism. There is no mistaking the origins of Lewerentz's works: This is the only explanation for their complexity.

The architect's production, therefore, is quite in tune with his way of observing the world, portrayed in the silent yet eloquent snapshots of his tour of Italy.

A precious gift at the beginning of the book, this collection of images was produced by someone who values the selection and extraction of fragments from reality. Sometimes they show parts of buildings whose materials are worthy because they are evocative, such as the bricks of ancient Rome.

At others they represent ideas and metaphors alluding to other places and moments in life. After having been captured, these elements were reworked by the master and transformed into architecture.

Cecilia Bolognesi is an architect Le Corbusier e la musica Acustica e architettura. Tale tema, tuttavia, va molto oltre il problema tecnico-fisico dei processi di propagazione del suono: In questo senso, la musica viene assunta nei suo significato originario, mitico, quindi non come tipo differenziato d'arte, ma come aspetto apollineo della realizzazione sonora della poesia, dell'esplicitazione artisticamente controllata degli atti linguistici.

Secondo Le Corbusier, nella configurazione dello spazio non si possono escludere coordinate come misure, armonia, ritmo e proporzioni; se ogni cosa e nei rapporto giusto si genera una consonanza o acustica visuale simile a quella dei suoni come si legge nei testo dedicato al progetto della chiesa di Ronchamp. Le proporzioni provocano delle sensazioni e la loro successione e come la melodia nella musica: Cosi le forme e i volumi, animati dalle proporzioni matematiche, possono fare rumore o silenzio acustica visuale delle forme e possono sintonizzarsi con le riverberazioni acustiche emesse dal paesaggio acoustique paysagiste.

Questo e I'itinerario 'trasversale' che Amedeo Petrilli percorre nei suo libra, aN'interno dell'opera di Le Corbusier, mettendo in evidenza I'intreccio, la catena di corrispondenze che unisce la musica all'architettura e interpretando in maniera originale principi e regole che caratterizzano la ricerca spaziale svolta da uno dei protagonisti dell'architettura del Novecento.

Questo punto di vista conferma inoltre I'atteggiamento mentale di Le Corbusier che esclude gesti gratuiti e che si sviluppa attraverso un continuo affinamento dei presupposti teorici di esperienze condotte in precedenza.

In ognuna di queste, poi, e sempre possibile individuare indizi verso nuove possibili aperture, nonche un continuo approfondimento delle relazioni e degli intrecci fra diversi fenomeni artistici. Suono, armonia, spazio, tempo, ritmo, matematica: La "nuova arte" del Novecento parte da Pitagora, secondo cui la geometria e il mezzo che consente di comprendere I'essenza piu profonda del mondo lo spazio indicibile di Le Corbusier ; riparte da Pitagora perche intuisce la possibilita di esprimere le consonanze musicali bellezza acustica attraverso la matematica le figure geometriche e deduce I'esistenza di una profonda interrelazione fra spazio, suono e musica.

Mano a mano che la ricerca di Le Corbusier avanza, nella coerenza del suo percorso, I'intreccio si complica quando entra in scena Yannis Xenakis , ingegnere-architetto greco, le cui vocazioni piu profonde come lui stesso ha affermato sono la matematica e la musica.

A questo punto la situazione del lettore o dello studioso e la seguente: Esattezza, rigore, regole dei tracciati, contrappunto e fuga. Xenakis, come ben documenta Petrilli, collabora presso I'atelier di rue de Sevres dal al , e responsabile principale nei progetti del Palazzo dell'Assemblea del Parlamento di Chandigarh, del Convento di Sainte-Marie-de-la- Tourette a Eveux, del Padiglione Philips per I'Esposizione universale di Bruxelles. Intorno al ha modo di utilizzare le griglie delle progression!

Era questo un problema che Xenakis aveva gia trattato in musica creando dei tops dei picchi su banda magnetica a determinate distanze, in sezione aurea. II criterio impiegato si fondava sulle fluttuazioni delle densita dei tops sulla retta tempo ; la soluzione e stata allora quella di giustapporre parti dense a parti piu rarefatte. La scelta della combinazione forza e velocita che determino il passaggio da una densita ad un'altra assunse un ruolo fondamentale nella composizione delle vetrate del fronte ovest del Convento de la Tourette, che furono disegnate su quattro livelli di contrappunto cui corrispondono i piani dell'edificio ordine verticale.

Ma e proprio a partire dalla composizione musicale Metastasis di Xenakis, che la ricerca viene spinta fino alle estreme conseguenze: Nel progetto per il padiglione Philips la scrittura musicale dei glissandi effetto ottenuto strisciando su tasti o corde per archi composta nella partitura strutture tridimensionali che configurano paraboloidi iperbolici e conoidi costruisce la forma dell'involucro spaziale. In queN'occasione Le Corbusier compone il suo Poeme electronique, un evento acustico e visivo in cui spazio, suono, colore, luce, ritmo, immagini e scansioni temporali si intersecano armonicamente.

Cosi nel padiglione Philips i suoni vengono proiettati nello spazio, fra le pareti in cemento armato, creando riverberazioni acustiche che a loro volta danno origine a nuovi suoni e, come nell'antico teatro greco, danno la sensazione del loro viaggio senza ritorno nello spazio. Dopo questo evento unico - e non poteva che essere tale - si interrompe la lunga collaborazione di Xenakis presso I'atelier di Le Corbusier: I'ingegnere musicista si dedica quasi esclusivamente alia musica, alia ricerca di nuove sonorita.

Avra ancora un'occasione per creare un evento complessivo come quello di Bruxelles attraverso la realizzazione del Diatope , spettacolo audiovisivo allestito in un 'guscio' pensato come una struttura effimera e temporanea da allestire, smontare e trasportare ovunque.

II progetto, su cui Petrilli si sofferma ampiamente, tenta di risolvere una questione sempre attuale: Le Corbusier, attraverso gli ultimi progetti, nella coerenza della sua ricerca paziente, mette a punto e verifica le proprie scelte spaziali e i propri assunti teorici fino ad arrivare a pensare una "promenade architecturale" attraverso la quale si succedono luci e viste, ma anche suoni elettronici: I'edificio del Visual Arts Center a Cambridge in America e stato immaginato come uno strumento che produce suoni.

Yannis Xenakis non e stato I'unico greco ad aver lavorato nell'equipe di rue de Sevres. Forse non e un caso; la Grecia per Le Corbusier, come piu volte ha affermato, costituiva uno stato mentale, un accordo, cioe il 'diapason' da cui partire per "fissare la direzione della propria vita all'unisono con avvenimenti intensi e straordinari".

Luisa Ferro, docente di composizione architettonica al Politecnico di Milano Le Corbusier and music As early as his first major schemes, Le Corbusier emphasized acoustics - together with other cardinal factors - in his theories and designs.

However, this concern went far beyond the physical and technical problems of sound propagation; its complex aspects were explored on several levels dealing directly with the buildings' plans.

In this sense, music took on its original, mythical significance: According to Le Corbusier, one could not exclude factors like measure, harmony, rhythm and proportion in the configuration of space. If everything is correctly proportioned, a visual consonance of acoustics is generated that is similar to that of sound this is expressed in his account of the Ronchamp Chapel scheme.

The proportions cause sensations whose succession acts like the melody in a piece of music: The harmony is the medium, the tool and the representation of the idea. This is Amedeo Petrilli's 'interdisciplinary' approach to Le Corbusier's work. He stresses the intertwining chain of relationships linking music to architecture, providing a novel interpretation of the rules and principles that characterize the spatial experimentation of one of the 20th- century's greatest architects.

This viewpoint confirms Le Corbusier's philosophy, which shunned gratuitous gestures and developed by means of continuous improvement on the theoretical presuppositions of his previous creations. The architect employed sound, harmony, space, time, rhythm and mathematics.

The latter was central to the early stages of the Modulor studies and made it possible to delve deeper and deeper into the mythical facets of the golden section, as upheld by the postulates of Matila Ghyka, a Greek scholar who wrote the celebrated The Number of Gold His reflections on the subject offer an interesting intermingling of objective facts and 'poetic fantasies'.

The point of departure for the 'new art' of the 20th century was Pythagoras, who maintained that geometry is the means allowing comprehension of the most profound essence of the world Le Corbusier's 'indescribable space'. For the architect, returning to Pythagoras helped him glimpse the possibility of expressing musical consonance acoustic beauty through mathematics geometric figures , which led him to suggest an important interrelation between space, sound and music.

As Le Corbusier's experiments progressed, the plot became more intricate with the appearance of Yannis Xenakis 1 , a Greek architect and engineer whose greatest talents were mathematics and music.

Around 1 Le Corbusier was able to utilize the grid of the geometric progressions contained in the two legs of the Modulor. He also tested the 'combinations of melodic intervals expressed in semitones' in both music Metastasis, and architecture the sections of undulating glass in the la Tourette Monastery, the Chandigarh Assembly Building, the Firminy Youth House and the Brazilian Pavilion in Paris. Xenakis had already addressed this problem in msic by engendering some tops on recording tape, arranged at distances determined by the golden section.

The criterion used was founded on their fluctuation in time; the solution was to juxtapose dense and more rarefied parts. The selection of the combination strength and speed that determined the shift from one density to another was intrinsic to the design of the glazing on the west facade of the la Tourette Monastery, which features four counterpoint levels corresponding to the floors of the structure vertical order.

Meanwhile, the oscillation projected onto a straight line represented a variable- density horizontal order essential to the scheme: Modulor 2, 1 However, beginning with Xenakis' composition Metastasis, experimentation was pushed to the utmost limits: So architecture and the graphic representation of sound were identical.

In the Philips Pavilion design, glissandi a sliding effect in music scored for strings generated the form of the spatial envelope three-dimensional hyperbolic and conic parabolic structures.

It was at this time that Le Corbusier composed his Electronic Poem, an audio-visual happening in which space, sound, colour, light, rhythm, images and temporal scanning intersected harmoniously.

In the Philips Pavilion the sounds were projected into space between the reinforced concrete walls, engendering acoustic reverberations that, in turn, produced new sounds.

Like in ancient Greek theatre, the sensation was a one-way trip through space. After this necessarily unique event, Xenakis left Le Corbusier's studio. The musician and engineer devoted himself nearly exclusively to music, searching for new sounds. Diaope gave him another opportunity to create a complex event like the one in Brussels. This audio-visual show was staged in a 'shell' conceived as a temporary, ephemeral building that could be erected, dismantled and shipped anywhere.

Petrilli deals at length with this project, which sought to solve a still current architectural II progetto Bordogna-Mollino-Musmeci per il concorso Palazzo del Lavoro Italia61 a Torino. Dal volume Bordogna, 65 anni di architettura, a cura di Chiara Bordogna Neirotti. It came second, beaten by Nervi's plan. From Bordogna, 65 anni di architettura, edited by Chiara Bordogna Neirotti. Edizioni Allemandi, Turin, matter: Following on the architect's patient experimentation, Le Corbusier's later schemes developed and verified his spatial aims and theoretical hypotheses.

He even went so far as to conceive an architectural promenade offering a succession of lights, views and electronic sounds: Luisa Ferro professor of architectural composition at Politecnico Milano Cinema e storia Cinema e storia Percorsi immagini testimonianze Pasquale laccio Liguori, Napoli, pp. Diversamente, sarebbe un po' come pensare che il nesso "pittura e storia" caratterizzi solo certa produzione ottocentesca di genere o che il nesso "letteratura e storia" identifichi solo gli eredi di Walter Scott.

Piu arduo pronunciarsi sul nesso "architettura e storia": II nesso "cinema e storia" evoca ai piu sprovveduti o ai piu pigri altrettante 'ricostruzioni'. Anche se gli universi di cartapesta, le fantasiose escursioni, le sequele di falsi, appunto, pseudostorici - insomma tutto cio che ha variamente dominato, con esiti spesso catastrofici, la produzione ormai ultrasecolare del mezzo cinematografico -, hanno da qualche tempo lasciato il posto a rievocazioni fantasiosamente attendibili, debitamente aggiomate, spettacolarmente suggestive, il panorama e comunque sospetto.

Con le eccezioni del caso, racchiuse - per surrogare il discorso - in un paio di esempi: Ma il discorso puo essere ribaltato: Sulla strada aperta da alcuni studiosi Nicola Tranfaglia, Giovanni De Luna, Ennio Di Nolfo e da lui stesso subito praticata, Pasquale laccio, prolifico autore di ricerche specie sul ventennio fascista, dedica questo ponderoso volume appunto al cinema come fonte storica: Andrebbe deluso chi si attendesse un'opera organica quello di laccio e il tipico work in progress , ma sara invece gratificato chi sapra cogliere i molti spunti, suggerimenti, riflessioni e considerazioni che il volume offre: I due percorsi si intrecciano.

Da una parte le dichiarazioni di questi ultimi, ben sollecitati su un emblematico tema: Dall'altra, specifici saggi analitici sul documentario, su guerra e dopoguerra nella Napoli cinematografica, sui piii recenti modelli di storiografia per immagini il repertorio finalmente affiorato da prestigiosi quanto polverosi archivi di mezzo mondo e, per quanto ci riguarda da vicino, I'lstituto Luce di fascistica memoria, oggi buon centra propulsore.

Dal coacervo di documentary cinegiomali e fiction, emerge a ben saper osservare e a ben saper utilizzare una nitida memoria del nostra passato, uno strumento insostituibile di conoscenza, un inventario di volti e luoghi, oggetti e usanze, atteggiamenti e costumi altrimenti 8 Domus Febbraio February irreperibile. Poco importa che alia fredda registrazione della realta si accompagnino trasfigurazioni di vario genere e interventi autoriali.

Se il cinema, nelle sue migliori occasioni prodotti minori o minimi compresi , e uno specchio, v'e chi da sempre sostiene che occorre guardare oltre lo specchio, oltre le parvenze e addirittura oltre le intenzioni: Come nella pittura rinascimentale o nei romanzi ottocenteschi, v'e piu verita negli sfondi o, rispettivamente, nelle parti descrittive che non nelle figure al centra deN'immagine e della vicenda.

Lorenzo Pellizzari, critico e storico del cinema Film and history Any term that is paired with the noun 'history' or its substance must be linked specifically to medium and period. Otherwise one might assume that the tie between 'painting and history' characterizes 19th-century genre painting alone, or that 'literature and history' only refers to followers of Walter Scott.

Invoking the link between 'architecture and history' is even more problematic, summoning shades of Viollet-le-Duc or Luca Beltrami and their daring pseudo- historic reconstructions.

The connection between 'film and history' may suggest, for the ignorant or lazy, similar 'reconstructions'. For over a century the production of films has been dominated by papier- mache sets, fantastic adventures and successions of pseudo-historic fakes; the outcome has frequently been catastrophic. But for some time now these have been supplanted by fantastically credible period pieces, properly updated, spectacularly suggestive and more than a little ambiguous.

KliiJ ll'jU jiil,ijjilUj vi i: I'm tempted to point out that it was the age of Enlightenment. However, we might approach the matter differently. Instead of movies simulating history, we could have history that is subtly, ubiquitously and often involuntarily perpetuated in the cinema.

Movies and mass media become the knowledge support of the former. This path was paved by several scholars Nicola Tranfaglia, Giovanni De Luna and Ennio di Nolfo , and author Pasquale laccio, a prolific writer of studies, especially on the fascist period, follows in their footsteps. He devotes this ponderous publication to films as a historic source; that is, 'the self- representation of a society, a builder of myths, provoker of passions, propaganda tool, ideological vehicle and reflection of its own age', laccio's is a typical work in progress; those who expect an organic essay will be disappointed, but those who are able to grasp the many ideas, suggestions and reflections offered in the volume will be gratified.

In particular, there is a sizeable dossier of observations by some of the leading Italian directors and screenwriters. The two trails intertwine. First come the statements of these people in the movie industry, adroitly questioned on an emblematic topic: This is a meaningful laboratory and suggestive environment for investigating a complex question one cannot deny that for many of us, a familiarity with the south came through the cinema that represents it.

There also are analytical essays on documentaries, the war and post-war periods, Naples and the most recent models of filmic history. Much of this material has been unearthed from dusty, prestigious archives scattered throughout much of the world. In Italy, the fascist-era Istituto Luce is now an excellent source. With close observation and interpretation, from this pack of documentaries, newsreels and fiction emerges a sharp memory of our past, an irreplaceable instrument of knowledge, an inventory of faces and places, objects and customs, attitudes and costumes that it would be impossible to find elsewhere.

It doesn't matter much that the chilly recording of reality is coloured by the transfigurations and viewpoints of the creators. At its best, the cinema including B movies is a mirror, but one has to look beyond appearances and intentions. As in Renaissance paintings or 19th-century novels, there is more truth in the background and descriptions than in the central figures of any image or event.

Louis Comfort Tiffany New York 1 per tutta la vita ha scavato in questa profonda verita, ha lavorato per cambiare e educare il gusto del pubblico, ha rivoluzionato e creato con canoni moderni i principi del design. II volume, edito dalla Taschen e curato da Jacob Baal-Teshuva attento alia grafica e alia fotografia e con testo in tre lingue: In pagine, il libra traccia gli elementi essenziali di un lavoro coerente e originale, di uno stile a tutt'oggi inimitabile, nonostante gli innumerevoli tentativi di falsificazione.

La firma Tiffany e davvero inconfondibile: E' stato proprio il grande amore di Tiffany per la natura ad avvicinarlo all'arte. In un primo tempo il giovane Louis non pensava al vetro, bensi alia pittura, cui si e dedicato con passione: Sempre rimase vivo in lui quel senso forte del colore, che era per I'occhio cio che la musica era per I'orecchio. E' negli anni '70 dell'Ottocento, nel cuore di una New York che stava vivendo la grande espansione economica che, abbandonati i pennelli, Tiffany matura la decisione di dedicarsi alia progettazione di vetrate artistiche lo avevano impressionato le cattedrali gotiche viste in Francia e i vetri egizi, sumeri e orientali raccolti nei frequenti viaggi e al disegno di oggetti d'arredo.

Quasi per caso, dallo scarto dei vetri tagliati, sono nati i suoi primi paralumi. Erano e sono oggetti unici, pezzi preziosi alcuni arrivano a contare anche piu di tessere , di grande valore economico oltre che artistico. Ad esempio, nel il paralume con i fiori di loto era venduto per la stratosferica cifra di dollari: Ma, se in cinquant'anni di attivita Mister Tiffany ha dato prova di una grande capacita creativa, ha anche dimostrato di possedere un'abilita non indifferente nel gestire, organizzare e diffondere un'industria: Basti pensare che all'inizio del Novecento dopo trent'anni di lavoro la Tiffany impiegava piu di mille operai, tra cui alcuni maestri vetrai altamente special izzati, come il veneziano Andrea Boldini: Sullo scorcio dell'Ottocento tutti i salotti piu in vista del mondo sfoggiavano oggetti Tiffany: Quella lampada, il cui paralume e interamente dominato dai cangianti colori del grande insetto, ripetuto come motivo ornamentale attorno alia parte piu larga del cappello, e solo un esempio della squisita ricerca formale e coloristica di quest'eclettico genio del vetro.

Un altro noto esemplare e quello raffigurante i fiori di loto il piu raro, poiche oggi ne esistono solo due , che con le rose, il glicine, il narciso, il gelsomino, il geranio, la begonia e il tulipano formava i mosaici piu ricercati degli abat-jour dedicati ai giardini. Tiffany non ha mai amato dipingere il vetro. Un colore applicato sopra quella liscia superficie avrebbe oscurato la sua naturale trasparenza e I'avrebbe snaturata.

II suo intuito e stato quello di esporre il vetro a vapori di ossidi metallici, di mescolarlo a minerali e a sostanze che magicamente, per semplice processo chimico, ne tingevano la pasta. Nel Louis Comfort Tiffany brevettava la sua scoperta con il nome di Favrille dal latino fabrilis, fatto a mano: II passo successivo fu quello di sovrapporre piu 'fogli' di vetro, differenti per colore, e comporre una miriade di nuove sfumature.

I contemporanei, parlando di queste creazioni, le avevano paragonate alle impalpabili ali delle farfalle o alle diafane e cangianti piume dei pavoni.

Nel , ai vasi, alle lampade, alle vetrate e agli oggetti d'arredo si aggiunsero i gioielli, campo in cui fino a quel momento si era distinto il padre. Ma alle pietre preziose Louis ha sostituito curiose gemme di vetro, la cui foggia e originalita superavano di gran lunga i convenzionali bijoux del tradizionale mercato orafo.

Solo negli anni Cinquanta questi oggetti, da tempo dimenticati, sono stati riscoperti e rivalutati. Lorella Giudici, critico d'arte The difference between beauty and the beast 'It is entirely a question of education, and until people have learned the difference between beauty and ugliness we never will have quality art in our homes'. Louis Comfort Tiffany, who was born in New York in and died in , devoted his life to fulfilling this philosophy. Seeking to change and educate public tastes, he succeeded in revolutionizing and creating the principles that underlie modern design.

This elegant volume, edited by Jacob Baal-Teshuva, is printed in full colour; its graphic design and photography are carefully done, and the text appears in three languages French, English and German.

Covering the entire history of the extraordinary unchallenged leader of art nouveau, the publication's pages outline the cardinal elements of a coherent, original oeuvre and a style that is still without peer, despite many attempts to imitate it. There is no mistaking Tiffany's style, with its signature mixture of talent, grace, elegance and quality. He paid close attention to details and materials and was very careful about line - never banal or anonymous - and colour.

The palette he employed, so powerfully close to the real world, is still impressive. It was Tiffany's great love for nature, in fact, that inspired his interest in art. However, at the start of his career the young artist did not have in mind glass, but painting. He painted passionately until he realized that his lack of academic training would impede his commercial appeal and credentials.

Yet Tiffany always maintained a painter's strong sense of colour, which was central to his thinking and creations. In the s, in the heart of booming New York, Tiffany decided to quit painting and devote himself to the design of artistic stained-glass windows and furnishings. He had been highly impressed by the French Gothic cathedrals and the Egyptian, Sumerian and Oriental glass he had collected during his frequent trips.

Almost by accident, his first lampshades took shape from some leftover shards of cut glass. These objects were and still are unique. Often made from over 1 , pieces of glass, the lampshades are very precious, beautiful and costly. During his 50 years in business, Tiffany Leggerezza nella natura: The company's output, staff and specialization were unprecedented and unrivalled worldwide.

By the early s, 30 years after its establishment, Tiffany's firm had over 1 , employees, including highly qualified glass workers like the Venetian Andrea Boldini. At the turn of the century, all of the world's leading salons displayed Tiffany artefacts. Among the host of honours awarded at the Paris Universal Exposition, the Dragonfly lamp won first prize.

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